ALIGATOR Mathematica Package

Aligator is a Mathematica software package for generating loop invariants.


To install Aligator download Aligator.m from the repository and put it somewhere Mathematica can find it.


Aligator requires the Mathematica packages Hyper, FastZeil and Dependencies, where the latter two are part of the compilation package ErgoSum. Thus, before you can use Aligator you have to install those packages first.


We provide an introductory example for computing all polynomial invariants among the program variables a, b, c and d.

(* Load RISC packages separately; necessary due to a dependency loading issue *)
(* Load Aligator *)
<< Aligator`

  WHILE[y > 0,
    t1 := t2;
    t2 := a;
    a := 5 (n + 2) t2 + 6 (n^2 + 3n + 2) t1;
    b := 2 b;
    c := 3 (n + 2) c;
    d := (n + 2) d
  LoopCounter -> n,
  IniVal -> {

The output of Aligator is a conjuction of the elements of the Gröbner basis of the ideal of algebraic relations among a, b, c and d providing a finite representation of all polynomial invariants among those.

25 d^2 == (7 a - 12 b c)^2

If no starting values (IniVal) are given, then the invariants contain the starting values in the form of a[0] corresponding to the initial value of a.

d^2 b[0]^2 c[0]^2 (a[0] - 6 t2[0])^2 == d[0]^2 (7 a b[0] c[0] - 6 b c (a[0] + t2[0]))^2

More examples are provided in the repository.


  1. A. Humenberger, M. Jaroschek, L. Kovács. Invariant Generation for Multi-Path Loops with Polynomial Assignments. In Verification, Model Checking, and Abstract Interpretation (VMCAI), 2018.

  2. A. Humenberger, M. Jaroschek, L. Kovács. Automated Generation of Non-Linear Loop Invariants Utilizing Hypergeometric Sequences. In International Symposium on Symbolic and Algebraic Computation (ISSAC), 2017.

  3. L. Kovács. A Complete Invariant Generation Approach for P-solvable Loops. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Perspectives of System Informatics (PSI), volume 5947 of LNCS, pages 242–256, 2009.

  4. L. Kovács. Reasoning Algebraically About P-solvable Loops. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems (TACAS), volume 4963 of LNCS, pages 249–264, 2008.

  5. L. Kovács. Aligator: A Mathematica Package for Invariant Generation (System Description). In Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Automated Reasoning (IJCAR), volume 5195 of LNCS, pages 275–282, 2008.

  6. L. Kovács. Invariant Generation with Aligator. In Proceedings of Austrian-Japanese Workshop on Symbolic Computation in Software Science (SCCS), number 08-08 in RISC-Linz Report Series, pages 123–136, 2008.

  7. L. Kovács. Aligator: a Package for Reasoning about Loops. In Proceedings of the International Conferenceon Logic for Programming, Artificial Intelligence and Reasoning – Short Papers (LPAR-14), pages 5–8, 2007.